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How to Run Essay Example for Free
How to Run EssaySTATISTICAL TECHNIQUE IN round offMean (X) is a measure of central tendency and is the sum of the raw hemorrhoid divided by the number of scores being summed. Standard diversion (SD) is calculated to measure dispersion or the spread of scores from the mean (Burns Grove, 2007). The larger the value of the standard deviation for study variables, the greater the dispersion or variability of the scores for the variable in a scattering. (See Exercise 16 for a detailed discussion of mean and standard deviation. ) Since the theoretical normal shorten is symmetrical and unimodal, the mean, median, and mode argon equal in the normal curvature (see Figure 18-1). In the normal curve, 95% of the scores will be inside 1.96 standard deviations of the mean, and 99% of scores are within 2.58 standard deviations of the mean. Figure 18-1 demonstrates the normal curve, with a.X = 0. The formula apply to calculate the 95% rule to determine where 95% of the scores for the norma l curve breathe is X1.96(SD)The formula used to calculate the 99% rule to determine where 99% of the scores for the normal curve lie isX 2.58 (SD)FIGURE 18-1 The Normal flexMeanMedianModeStandard deviation -3Zscore-2.58-+2.58131133Mean, Standard Deviation, and 95% and 99% of the Normal CurveEXERCISE 18Participants reported a net increase in weight from 3 months prior (M= 2.4 Ib, SD 12.9 Ib) and 12 months prior (M = 10.9 Ib, SD = 19.1 Ib) and that their weight was greater than their high-flown weight (M = 9.2 Ib, SD = 22.9 Ib). SDs for the data indicated a wide range on weight at both 3 and 12 months before participation in the study. consistency im season scores (0-100 scale) were epoch-makingly (F(1 37) = 5.41, p =.03) higher for women (73.1 17.0) than men (60.2 17.0). Although human immunodeficiency virus-positive participants had slightly higher dust pictorial matter scores (M = 68.0, SD = 17.0) compared with participants with AIDS (M = 60.5, SD = 18.8), there was no operative rest (F(1 ,7, = 1.56, p .22) in embody image scores in the midst of those with HIV and AIDS. There was a weak, but significant, inverse association between body image score and weight changes from 3 months prior (r = -.30, p =.04). Body image and weight scores are summarized in Table 1 (Corless et al, 2004, p. 294). tabular array 1Body Image and Weight Measures for Men and WomenGENDERMaleFemaleMeanBody imageWeight change last 12 monthsWeight change last 3 monthsWeight relative to apotheosisBody weight ratioSDMeanSD60.2210.2616.9822.4015.8722,9333.9773.0711.941.4713.6314.4467.5622.5734.443.055.4853.6616.937.32Corless, I. B., Nicholas, P. K., McGibbon, C. A., Wilson, C., (2004). Weight change, body image, and property of conduct in HIV disease A pilot study. Applied Nursing Research, 77(4), p. 294.A summary of quality-of-life scores for men and women is shown in Table 2. The scales of the MOS-HIV Quality of lifetime instrument include General Health Perceptions, Phys ical Functioning, Role Functioning, Social Functioning, Cognitive Functioning, Pain, Mental Health, Vitality, Health Distress, Quality of Life, and Heath Transition. There were no significant differences between quality of life scores between men and women. Men did have trim back scores on some MOS-HIV scales (Cognitive Functioning, Pain, Quality of Life, and Health Transition) and women were lower on others (Vitality and Health Distress). In addition, there were a number of differences in the relationships between quality of life scores, body image, and body weight. The positive correlations indicated that improved quality of life was associated with improved body image (Corless et al., 2004, pp. 294-5).132EXERCISE 18Mean, Standard Deviation, and 95% and 99% of the Normal CurveThe data described below are the verbal SAT scores for high school seniors for one year with X = 490 and SD =100 (see Figure 18-2). The formula used to find where 95% of the scores lie is X 1.96 (SD). In th is example, 490 + 1.96 (100) = 686, and 490 1.96 (100) = 294. Thus 95% of scores lie between 294 and 686, expressed as (294, 686). Since 95% of the scores are between 294 and 686, this leaves 5% of the scores outside this interval. Since a normal curve is symmetric, one-half of the scores, or 2.5%, are at each end of this distribution.To find where 99% of scores lie,Z 2.58 (SD), where 490 + 2.58 (100) = 748and 490 2.58 (100) = 232. Thus, 99% of the SAT scores lie between 232 and 748, which is expressed as (232, 748). Since the distribution of these scores is normal, 99% of the scores are between 232 and 748 and 0.5% of the scores are at each end of this distribution.FIGURE 18-2 ft Distribution of SAT ScoresSD=100x = 490MeanRESEARCH ARTICLESource Corless, I. B., Nicholas, P. K., McGibbon, C. A., Wilson, C, (2004). Weight change, body image, and quality of life in HIV disease A pilot study. Applied Nursing Research 77(4), 292-6.IntroductionThe purpose of this pilot study conducte d by Corless and colleagues (2004) was to investigate the relationships of weight change, body image, length of time with HIV/AIDS diagnosis, and quality of life in individuals with HIV disease (Corless et al., 2004, p. 292). The sample consisted of 40 subjects 23 men and 17 women. The HIV-positive adults in a primary care clinic were asked to participate, so this study has a sample of convenience. The participants reported an increase in weight, greater than their ideal weight. The body image scores were found to be significantly higher for women, with the HIV-positive participants having slightly higher body image scores. A survey and Medical Outcomes Study-HIV (MOS-HIV) instruments were used as measurement methods for this study. The results indicated that when a persons weight is higher and closer to his or her ideal, HIV-positive individuals exhibit better quality of life. Thus, education of clinicians and individuals living with HIV/AIDS should focalization on the assessment, management, and evaluation of weight change during the course of HIV disease (Corless et al., 2004, p. 292).Relevant Study ResultsThe sample consisted of 23 men with a mean age of 42.2 years (SD = 8.2), length of time since diagnosis with HIV was 9.2 years (SD = 5.3) and 17 women with a mean age of 36.8 years (SD = 5.2), and length of time since diagnosis with HIV was 7.2 years (SD = 4.8). For men, 23 were HIV-positive and 9 had a diagnosis of AIDS and for women, 17 were HIV positive, and 5 had a diagnosis of AIDS. There was no significant difference in demographic characteristics of the sample by age, gender, HIV disease status, and time living with HIV.ClassNameDateEXERCISE 18Questions to be ranked1. assuming that the distribution is normal for weight relative to the ideal and 99% of the male participants scored between (-53.68, 64.64), where did 95% of the values for weight relative to the ideal lie? violate your answer to two decimal places.2. Which of the following values f rom Table 1 tells us about variability of the scores in a distribution?a. 60.22b. 11.94c. 22.57d. 53.663. presumptuous that the distribution for General Health Perceptions is normal, 95% of the females scores around the mean were between what values? Round your answer to two decimal places.4. Assuming that the distribution of scores for Pain is normal, 95% of the mens scores around the mean were between what two values? Round your answernto two decimal places.5. Were the body image scores significantly different for women versus men? Provide a rationale for your138EXERCISE 18Mean, Standard Deviation, and 95% and 99% of the Normal Curve6. Assuming that the distribution of Mental Health scores for men is normal, where are 99% of the mens mental health scores around the mean in this distribution? Round your answer to two decimal places.7. Assuming that the distribution of scores for Physical Functioning in women is normal, where are of the womens scores around the mean in this distribu tion? Round your answer to two decimal places.8. Assuming that the distribution of scores is normal, 99% of HIV-positive body image scores around the mean were between what two values? Round your answer to two decimal places.9. Assuming that the distribution of scores for Role Functioning is normal, 99% of the mens scores around the mean were between what values? Round your answer to two decimal places.10. What are some of the limitations of this study that decrease the potential for generalizing the findings to the target population?