Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Sea Level Rises And Problems For Bangladesh Environmental Sciences Essay
In the twenty-first century when we are fighting with tonss of challenges, which are necessary to do certain being of life in the universe. If we think overall, the current planetary issues are nutrient, energy, recession, International Political issue, Climate alteration, Nuclear Missile trial, Fight against universe poorness as 100,00000 people unrecorded under poorness line, United Nations Global issue ( 2009, the twelvemonth in Review ) . Nowadays, Climate alteration is the most of import issue as whole universe is concern about the clime alteration. Therefore, last 6-18 December`2009 the universe leaders met together in Copenhagen for happening out the solutions for this current job. The universe Ã¢â¬Ës ambiance is going hot to hotter by the assorted human activities which ultimate consequences is the planetary heating, i.e. Climate alteration. Sea Level Rise ( SLR ) is the consequence of addition temperature in the ambiance and affects low-lying coastal countries and deltas o f the universe. Harmonizing to the Warrick et Al ( 1993 ) stated that Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) in 1990, estimated that universe would be 3.30 heater at the terminal of the following century due to the scenario of nursery gas emanation, with a scope of uncertainness of 2.2 to 4.90 C. Because of the addition in temperature, sea degree will lift due to the thermic enlargement and ice thaw. There are assorted affect has due to the SLR on Bangladesh, being a low-lying state in the universe, peculiarly in coastal country. The coast country of Bangladesh is about 710 kilometers, which contains the universe longest sea beach Cox Ã¢â¬Ës Bazar. It has been approved by many of the natural research workers that Bangladesh is the most disaster-prone state in the universe as it has been sing a tonss of calamity such as inundation, tropical cyclones, coastal eroding, coastal storm surges which causes heavy loss of life, belongings and endangering the activities of current and past development for the geographical place, Ali ( 1999 ) .1.2 Designation of job in the facet of Bangladesh:As we have seen that harmonizing to the many experts Bangladesh is the most affected state in the universe due to the SLR, hence, the following job has been identified and necessary to farther scrutiny for future version and sustainability for longer clip. To look into rate of the sea degree rise in the Bangladesh, peculiarly, when will the sea degree lift up to one meter? What are the immediate jobs will be raised due to these degrees rise in coastal parts in Bangladesh? What will be the duty for sea degree rise locally and globally?About Global heating2.1 What is the Global heating?Harmonizing to the NASA ( 2010 ) stated that aÃâ ?Global heating is an addition in the mean temperature of Earth Ã¢â¬Ës surfaceaÃâ ? . Due to the planetary worming, the mean temperature of Earth Ã¢â¬Ës surface has been increased about 0.7 to 1.4 grades F ( 0.4 to 0.8 grades C ) since 1800`s, and at the terminal of 2100 the Earth Ã¢â¬Ës mean temperature will be increased extra 2.5 to 10.4 grades F ( 1.4 to 5.8 grades C ) which has been estimated by many experts. World Climatologists have analysed that Global heating is making due to heightening Earth Ã¢â¬Ës natural nursery effects which taking nursery gas in the ambiance, firing the fossil fuels ( coal, Oil, and natural gas ) , firing of cars in mill, electric power workss that provide energy. Many amendss would be occurred due to the uninterrupted planetary heating, SLR is one of the most unsafe, and most of the coastal country can be flooded. NASA ( 2010 ) .About Sea-level rise3.1 Causes of SLR:Thermal enlargement of the oceans, runing glaciers, and runing ice caps is the chiefly responsible for SLR, which are besides symptoms of planetary heating. When any liquid or ocean addition in temperature, it increases in volume as well which is known by thermic enlargement. When there is runing of glacial and ice cap thaw, it is the net loss of H2O from the organic structure of snow and ice ; if more H2O thaws off the glacier or ice cap during the summer than is accumulated through precipitation during the winter. Mission ( 2010 ) .3.2 Types of SLR:Lewis ( 2000 cited in Mission, 2010 ) Ã¢â¬Å" There are two types of SLR: Eustatic and isostatic. Eustatic SLR responds to major climatic alteration and perchance affected by planetary heating. Isostatic sea degree rise is a localised representation of perpendicular supplantings of land surface with regard to sea levelaÃâ ? Based on Lewis ( 2000 ) we can make up one's mind that in Bangladesh is affected by eustatic SLR, which is created by the planetary heating.3.3 Global Sea Level Prediction:Measurement of SLR depends on which theoretical account was implemented. Most popular cited theoretical accounts normally used to foretell SLR are Hadley-CM3, MPI, GFDL, and CCCMA. If we find out any scope of informations, which are unmanageable and unpredictable factors that influence SLR. We can foretell the hereafter development engineering, thermic enlargement, planetary heating, clime, and the nursery emanation are such types of factors. Different premises have been aroused due to utilize of the different theoretical accounts. The norm of the scopes was calculated to acquire the most accurate Numberss. Mission 2010 ( 2010 ) Harmonizing to the Kim ( 2006 cited in Mission, 2010 ) :Figure-1: Sea degree rise ( beginning: Mission 2010 ( 2010 ) )The scope of the informations from extremes of.02 metres, Walsh ( 2002 cited in mission 2010 ) to 6 metres, AGI ( 1994, cited in mission 2010 ) . If we omit the lower and upper lineations than the norm, ranges indicate that sea degree will lift 0.944. In the figure-1 the hair's-breadth secret plan and box delineates the 50 % of the scope of complied SLR is 0.48 metres to 1.94 metres. The lineations omitted secret plan, which indicated with ruddy circles. 0.55 is the average, while the norm is 0.944 metres.Methodology4.1 Study Methodology:In order to run into the assignment Ã¢â¬Ës information demands and achieve the survey objectives one type of research methodological analysis will be conducted. Due to budget and clip restraints, the type of methodological analysis to be employed is restricted.4.2 Study Based on Secondary Data:The primary phase will dwell of secondary analysis of already bing informations. Literature on SLR in relation to fondness of Bangladesh and other relevant cardinal literature will be reviewed in order to look into the underlying relationship between SLR and cause of amendss in Bangladesh. The beginnings of secondary research are chiefly academic beginning ( Journal article, conference proceedings, working documents and relevant books, etc. ) , organisation Ã¢â¬Ës beginning ( as the research is based on one peculiar organisation, information on organisation will be gathered through organisational literature, booklet, website etc ) . Apart from that studies, international studies, scientific diaries, maps and intelligence articles, which are highlighted SLR that related with Bangladesh issues. Data besides will be collected from some surveies of the same field in other portion of the universe.4.3 Data AnalysisData will be collected over the short period. Due to the clip, restriction and cost effectual, no primary informations will be used for this survey. Qualitative and measures data analysis will be conducted in the survey. Sometimes comparative information analysis will be besides conducted.5.1 Who are to be blamed for Global Warming?Increasing temperature expand the ocean volume in two ways. First, in polar parts it Ã¢â¬Ës runing mass volume of ice. Second, it creates the ther mic enlargement of the ocean Ã¢â¬Ës H2O. Harmonizing to Wigley and Raper ( 1987 ) suggested mentioned that the comparative parts of thermic enlargement and ice thaw through approximately equal functions for enlargement and ice thaw to a dominant enlargement consequence. Therefore, volume of ocean H2O of the Earth and rise in the sea degree are increasing by the two factors. The homo is the chiefly responsible factor for rise of sea degree and planetary heating by combustion of fossil fuels. Trees are the chief responsible factors make balance in the environment by sucking the CO2. Deforestation is another job, which is created by Human as they are cutting many trees for their ain grounds. It has been measured that since 1980, more than 75 % CO2 emanation caused by the human because of fossil fuel combustion and remainder is the cause of agribusiness, deforestation and other human alterations utilizing the land ( Miller, 2004 ) . The development of power and the industrial workss which are firing the 1000s of coal and more than 700 million gasoline-burning motor vehicles which finally contribute the largest current CO2 emanation in the environment. One study revealed that combustion of coal by merely U.S, which exceeded more than combined CO2 emanations of 146 states and its contains 75 % of the universe Ã¢â¬Ës people ( Miller, 2004 ) . Compare to U.S. , Bangladesh as a little state is playing compatible function for the emanation of CO2 gas and nursery gas effects.Figure-2 ( beginning: World broad per capita C dioxide emanation ( Data beginning: NAPA, 2002 )Based on the study of National Adaptation Programs of Action ( NAPA, 2002 ) duologue, Bangladesh is merely responsible for emanation of CO2 is 0.2 ton per twelvemonth. Whereas, at the same clip USA entirely responsible for CO2 emanation is 20.0 ton per twelvemonth which is the more than 100 clip than Bangladesh and figure for the other developing states is 1.6, 4.0 and 6.0 severally. Harmonizing to Sarwar ( 2005 ) Stated that aÃâ ?The OECD, states, with approximately 15 % of the universe population, history for around 44 % of the entire emanation. One state, USA, is entirely responsible for 23 % of the entire annual fossil-fuel C emanation to the ambiance. In contrast, Bangladesh contributes a minuscular 0.06 % ( Warrick at EL, 1993 ) . Based on the NAPA, 2002 and OECD states data analysis, we can stand for that USA is transporting chief responsible function for the CO2 emanation to the atmosphere whereas they are non enduring much like Bangladesh.Figure- Top 20 CO2 emanations states in the universe, each country`s portion of CO2 emanation ( beginning: UCS, 2010 )The Coastal part of BangladeshCoastal Geomorphology of Bangladesh:The definition of seashore zone is where land and sea meet. Bangladesh has long coastal zone, about 710 kilometers by the distance around the Bay of Bengal between Indian and Myanmar boundary lines. The coastal part consists by 19 territory of Bangladesh which include Barguna, Bagerhat, Barisal, Bhola, Chittagong, Chandpur, Cox`s Bazar, Gopalganj, Jessore, Feni, Jhalakati, Khulna, Lakshimpur, Narail, Patuakhali, Pirojpur, Satkhira, Shariatpur and Noakhali. Bangladesh has made one of the most vulnerable states in the universe due to SLR, which is the consequence of planetary heating in term of the geographical location and morphological conditions. More than 10 % of the state seldom 1 m above the average sea degree and one tierce is the under tidal jaunts. There are three distinguishable coastal parts such as western, cardinal, and eastern zones, Ali ( 1999 ) . The universe largest individual piece of land of Rhizophora mangle ecosystem, Sundarbans located in the southwest corner of Bangladesh, which covers 6017km2 at nowadays. The land degree varies in the Sundarbans from 1 m 2 m and flooded during the high tides. Recently research, It has been predicted that due to the SLR there are some little and big islands like Kutubdia, Bhola, Sandwip and Hatia will be for good flooded and Bangladesh will lose its form.Figure-3: Map shows the coastal country and the major river system ( beginning: Ali, 1999 )SLR in Bangladesh:Harmonizing to this ( figure-4 ) , acceleration of sea degree will be the worsted state of affairs for the Bangladesh in the whole existence. If we look at the current state of affairs, where today context entire population is 112 million and entire land country is 134,000 km2. . A three dimensional position of the current coastline and major rivers and possible hereafter sea degrees at 1.5 metre displayed by utilizing Digital t errain patterning techniques. It has been calculated since 1989 that the expected rate of SLR has been increased and it has been anticipated that at present expected rates, this phase will happen in approximately 150 old ages from now.Figure-4: Screening that the anticipation of sea degree rises and affect ( beginning: UNEP, Environmental cognition for alteration, Potential impact of low-lying rise on Bangladesh )Scenario Land Area `000 km2 Population 1989 `000`000 ext Population 2030 `000`000 ext 150 centimeter 22 ( 16 % ) 17 ( 15 % ) 34 ( 15 % ) Bangladesh sum 134 ( 100 % ) 112 ( 100 % ) 224 ( 100 % )Table-5: Potential impact of Sea-level rise on Bangladesh ( Beginning: UNEP/GRID-Arendal,2009, )Geographically, Bangladesh is the most affected state:Harmonizing to the many scientific research, we came to cognize that sea degrees do non lift identically in each geographical part. As a consequence, in some parts sea degrees are expected to lift somewhat more than in others, as the addition in temperature within the different ( verticals ) beds of H2O takes topographic point in different phases. Therefore, geographical place of Bangladesh in this state is situated merely above the sea degree and in the estuary of three big rivers-Brahmaputra, Ganges and Meghan. Floods from the sea every bit good as from rivers spliting their Bankss threaten the state. Furthermore, state of affairs in Bangladesh is intensified by tropical cyclones and monsoon rainfall.Effectss of sea degree rise on the coastal zone of Bangladesh8.1 Salinity invasion on the seashore part in Bangladesh:Coast al part of Bangladesh is called the house of nutrients for Bangladesh, like Barisal, Khulna. However, the chief consequence of SLR in seashore part is scarceness of fresh H2O handiness decrease by salt invasion. Due to the SLR, both H2O and dirt salt along the seashore will be increased, destructing normal features of coastal dirt and H2O. In Bangladesh, coastal people Ã¢â¬Ës chief earning beginning is Shrimp Ã¢â¬Ës cultivation in the fresh H2O. Due to the SLR and salt invasion as Shrimp ( Peneaus Monodon ) species can non cultivate in coastal part which being investigated in a comparative survey by SRDI ( 1998b, 1998c ) between for the period of 1973 and 1997. Recently study found that Day by twenty-four hours huge figure of countries is converted to saline H2O field. During the twelvemonth 1975, 1987 and 2004 shows that shrimp farm countries has decreased in three coastal territories for salt invasion. During the last 30-years period, salt invasion has degraded land quality and husbandmans can non turn any agricultural harvests in their Fieldss. As a consequence, therefore husbandmans become zero productive landholders, in one sense landless, which their bing saline land.( Figure-6: Soil Salinity Map of Bangladesh of the twelvemonth 1973 ( Beginning: SRDI, 1998 B )( Figure-7: Soil Salinity Map of Bangladesh of the twelvemonth 1997 ( Beginning: SRDI, 1998 degree Celsius )8.2: Affect on Agriculture due to sea degree rise in coastal parts in Bangladesh:A research found that due to the Salinity invasion by SLR will diminish the agribusiness production, which will be affected for inaccessibility of fresh H2O and dirt debasement. Therefore, Ban gladesh has to be faced scarceness of nutrient in future, Sarwar ( 2005 ) . Furthermore, Salinity besides decreases the terminative energy and sprouting rate of some workss ( Rashid et al. , 2004 and Ashraf et al. , 2002 ) . Another research found that The loss of rice production in a small town of Satkhira territory was 1,151metric tones in 2003 and found that rice production in 2003 was 1,151 metric dozenss less than the twelvemonth 1985, matching to a loss of 69 per centum. Ali ( 2005 ) . Harmonizing to World Bank ( 2000 ) , In a survey found that increased salt entirely from a 0.3 meter SLR will do a net decrease of 0.5 million metric dozenss of rice production. Due to certain degree of SLR affects coastal agribusiness, particularly rice production, in two ways, which include due to the salt invasion degrades soil quality that lessening or inhibit rice production and when rice Fieldss are converted into shrimp pools due to SLR most of the land will be flooded by salt H2O.Figure-8 ( a ) : Production country ( % of entire production country of Bangladesh ( beginning: Sarwar, 2009 )Figure-8 ( B ) : Production country ( % of entire production country of Bangladesh ( beginning: Sarwar, 2009 )8.3: Impacts on aquaculture and piscaries in coastal parts in Bangladesh due to SLR:As all territories, which are located in the coastal zone, are vulnerable for SLR, which would be affected, on piscaries and aquaculture in Bangladesh by altering the location of the river estuary, doi ng a great alteration in fish home ground and genteelness land. Due to the SLR would turn this interface rearward, altering home ground of shrimp. Prawn is called the white gold in Bangladesh as Bangladesh is gaining a batch of foreign currency by exporting.Figure-9: impacts on seashore piscaries sector shows in Causal cringle Diagram ( beginning: Sarwar, 2005 )8.4: Problem with Settlement and land mass:The SLR will make job on Bangladesh in the coastal country and through the coastal country, on the whole Bangladesh. About 2 % , 5 % and 10 % with a corresponding figures of 2,500, 8,000 and 14,000 with regard to the entire land country of the state will be lost due to SLR of 0.1m, 0.3m and 1.0m severally. Ali ( 2000 ) . Therefore, 29,846 sq. km country of land will be lost and 14.8 million people will be landless by 1.0 m SLR. IPCC ( 2001 ) .Figure-10: Entire possible land loss by 1.0 m Sea Level Rise ( Beginning: IPCC, 2001 )Figure-11: Entire affected population 1.0 Sea Level Rise ( Beginning: IPCC, 2001 )A survey by Hutton and Haque ( 2003 ) found that people even if displaced 10 times during the period of 1981-1993, because of river bank eroding of the Jamuna River. Therefore, this eroding will do fiscal loss for the displace people to construct their new houses.8.5: Affect on touristry industry:The universe Ã¢â¬Ës biggest unbroken sea beach Cox`s Bazar is situated in the coastal territory Cox`s Bazar in Bangladesh, holding the length of 145 Km. Furthermore, there are Kuakata beach in Patuakhali territory, Patenga beach in Chittagong territory are besides situated in the coastal zone in Bangladesh. Hossain and Lin ( 2001 ) . During a survey by the Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation font that 19 per centum of aliens sing Bangladesh are tourers, remainder of them are visit Bangladesh for concern or other official intents. Tourism industry serves the state with economic development at the national degree and at the local degree ; it helps to strength local economic system, civilization, and heritage. Due to the SLR, this promising sector will impact the national economic system and heritage of Bangladesh.8.6: Affect on Security environmental refugees:Barnett ( 2003 cited in Sarwar, 2005 ) suggested that 5.5 million people populating on the Ganges delta in Bangladesh who will be forced to relocate with a 45 centimeter rise in sea degree may seek to travel inland within Bangladesh, but a important figure may seek to travel to neighbouring states India, Myanmar and Pakistan and old migration of this sort has been a factor in force in the part.Figure-12: Ecological refugees by 1.0 m Sea Level Rise ( beginning: Ear th Policy Institute, 2004 )Recently survey has been found that may people have been displaced from their ain place in recent decennaries, which called Ã¢â¬Å" ecological refugees` . Due to the SLR, this will take to make such ecological refugees in the state.Recommendation of possible job solutions due to the sea degree rise9.1: Introduction:Although Bangladesh has about less important part to increase SLR by planetary heating in clime alteration which the consequence of nursery gas emanation, CO2 emanation by firing petrochemical and other activities, it is dry that it has to endure so disastrously from the effects of clime alteration that likely to happen in the coming decennaries. Therefore, Bangladesh has about nil to make in this respect which can cut down planetary heating and finally, consequence is cut downing SLR. As Bangladesh can non take the of import function to cut down SLR which is the consequences of activities of internationally. Therefore, Bangladesh has to origina te two phases of job solutions, such as ( 01 ) Locally ( 02 ) Internationally.9.1: Local job solution stairssOverall all, point of position, in current state of affairs, Bangladesh should necessitate to see both extenuation and version options as extenuation involves planetary attempts to put to death and version is more local. Therefore, in this extroverted unsafe state of affairs, effectual version policies and extenuation steps should be developed and implemented to minimise SLR impact on Bangladesh.9.2 AdaptationBangladesh has three options for version, such as retreat, adjustment, and protection. Bangladesh is well one of the extremely dumbly populated state. Therefore, depending on the future population projections, and deficit of land, retreat is impossible. Unlike, Netherland most of the North and west coastal country has been recovered from sea by run outing system to make a polder. On the other word, version seeks to cut down inauspicious effects of SLR on life beings, including human and environment. Harmonizing to the Chatterjee & A ; Huq ( 2002 ) version policy depends on the engineering, wealth/incomes, proficient cognition and scientific and accomplishments, information, substructure, policy and direction establishments and equity. Bangladesh can implement different version options in different sectors such as to protect the piscaries sector by inverting for the development of coastal piscaries. The authorities of Bangladesh should assist the fishermen be updated about the catastrophe and their responsibilities to minimise the possible loss in the event which can assist by doing a annual program that most of the cyclones in the coastal zone occur in October and May. SLR is great impact on coastal agribusiness like salt invasion, inundation, and harm. As agribusiness has mentionable part to the GDP of Bangladesh. Therefore, if GDP is high plenty for excess allotment of money for research, it will assist to happen out salt tolerate species for agribusiness and of class find out new agribusiness techniques such as drifting agribusiness, which is the best manner to accommodate with the inauspicious state of affairs of sea degree rise. World biggest Rhizophora mangle wood is situated in the southeast coastal zone in the territory of Khulna. If Bangladesh can be arranged proper monitoring in Rhizophora mangle afforestation which can assist to protect dirt eroding because its roots help to pack dirt. As rice is the staple nutrient of the people of Bangladesh, whose production has decreased by the awaited sea degree rise that should increase production by presenting advanced agricultural engineering and by cultivating high output assortments in other parts of the state. Government should affect grass-root degree people with climate alteration adapt which is one of the best manner as Bangladeshi people are really advanced and enterprising and what is the of import is to transport out elaborate scientific surveies, to do the people aware of the at hand dangers, and to develop, along with them methods of version.9.3 Extenuation:In the medical scientific discipline has a celebrated adage that Ã¢â¬Å" bar is better than remedy Ã¢â¬Å" . CO2 emanation is the control is the bar of clime alteration and SLR finally. Although, Bangladesh emits a little volume of nursery gasses, the state should take necessary stairss even to cut down its emanation. On the other manus, control of deforestation and dodo fuel usage is indispensable for the intent. Harmonizing to the IPCC ( 2001a ) indicates the chief nursery gas emanation decrease steps such as: ( I ) . Demand decrease and/or efficiency betterment, ( II ) , Substitution among fossil fuels, ( III ) , Switch to at omic energy, ( IV ) , Switch to biomass ( V ) , Switch to other renewable, ( VI ) , CO2 scouring and remotion, and ( VII ) . Afforestation which Bangladesh should follow its degree best, the above-named seven steps.12.1: Internationally job solution stairss:Kyoto Protocol strengthens in the 1997, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed at Rio in 1992 by perpetrating developed states to cut down their corporate emanation of six cardinal nurseries gases by at least 5 % through the 2008-2012 periods. The Members of the EU Switzerland, most cardinal European provinces need to diminish 8 % ; the USA demand to diminish 7 % ; Canada, Hungary, Japan and Poland need to diminish 6 % , of their emanation, to make the mark but Although the USA later rejected the protocol, 178 states finally reached a binding understanding for its execution of Bonn in July 2001. Carter ( 2001 cited in the Sarwar, 2005 ) Harmonizing the UN ( 2005 ) Global C dioxide emanation was reduced merely 1.7 % from 1990 to 1998 that is the little sum of per centum comparison with the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 which has been already agreed in Kyoto protocol that during 2008-2012 will diminish at least 5 % . Last intergovernmental clime alteration conference has been taken topographic point at Bella Center in Denmark capital Copenhagen on the 6-18 December and the conference name was Ã¢â¬Å" Copenhagen 2009 Ã¢â¬Å" . It was the follow up of the 1997`s Kyoto protocol and desperately met all of the UNFCCC members as it became necessary as clime alteration is traveling up so fast. Kobenhavn 2009 ( 2010 ) . In this conference, as Bangladesh is most affected state should take advantage to acquire fund through UN from developed and states who has more part in CO2 emanation. Due to the non consent of China, India and USA as they are the more CO2 emanation states in the universe. Therefore, Government of Bangladesh should prosecute proper compensation program to acquire fund from top CO2 emanation states through United Nations to protect Bangladesh from the affect of planetary heating.13.1 Decision:Bangladesh will be the largely affected state in the universe due to the SLR, although this state plays really small function in green house gas emanation, taking to climate alteration and SLR. Therefore, Bangladesh authorities should take necessary program and should developed scheme to competitory SLR impacts and therefore safe its citizen. Therefore, development and execution of version policies and taking enterprises for extenuation steps should be taken now and it should non be observe or believe that sea degree will non lift at all, or to wait to see what go on in future.