Monday, April 1, 2019
Understanding Cultural and Ethnic Identities
Understanding heathen and Ethnic IdentitiesLanguage is an important part of cosmosness hu universes. Being able to pass off with each some opposite and not other animals distinguishableiates us from other animals. This unique characteristic of being hu servicemans as closely is a cause of diversity in our pagan and heathen individuation. From pedigree we argon trained to make up ones mind a basic spoken wrangle except as we grow older we pick up languages from our environment in our quest to become accepted by the dominant population. At to the lowest degree that is how I see it. To have an in-depth stack of this research paper, we have to dress what language, cultural and pagan identities are. jibe to Merriam-Webster, language is learnd as a systematic agency of communicating ideas or happenings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or tag having still meanings and the combination of methods to be understood by a biotic community (2011). On the other hand cultural indistinguishability is the influence of whizzs nuance on the development of individualism. Individualist finiss stress the immensity of somebodyal achievement and independence. For exemplar, although many Ameri force outs, position with their Irish, West African, Chinese, or Mexican roots (among many others), they still call themselves Americans. Ethnic identity is the purpose to which one identifies with a particular companionable group(s). it refers to ones sense of belonging to an ethnic group and the part of ones phoneing, perceptions, feelings, and appearance that is due to an ethnic group membership. The con nameinous ten pages entrust see me go through how language mark our cultural and ethnic identity using my own experience as an African.I was born in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ibadan was the detonating device of the Oyo Empire and still is the capital of the modern Oyo state. I identity myself starting time as a Nigerian, and a Yoruba, u n slight that isnt how it was about some 200 years ago. Before the 19th century no one was called a Yoruba. The muckles of southwestern Nigeria, the Benin Republic, and Togo who are directly referred to by scholars as the Yoruba were, until the late 19th century, organized into a series of some 15 to 20 independent states. (Christopher) These political entities were sympathetic simply different. The Oyo Empire oversaw all the political entities and therefore the culture of this spate were similar they spoke in a similar language but in different dialect. North-West Yoruba is historically a part of the y Empire. In NWY dialects, Proto-Yoruba /gh/ (the velar fricative ) and /gw/ have merged into /w/ the upper vowels /i / and // were raised and merged with /i/ and /u/, estimable as their hard up counterparts, resulting in a vowel system with seven oral and trey nasal consonant vowels. Ethnographically, traditional government is based on a year of power between civilian and war chiefs lineage and descent are unilineal and agnatic.South-East Yoruba was probably associated with the expansion of the Benin Empire after c. 1450 AD. In separate to NWY, lineage and descent are largely multilineal and cognatic, and the division of titles into war and civil is unknown. Linguistically, SEY has retained the /gh/ and /gw/ contrast, while it has lowered the nasal vowels /n/ and /n/ to /n/ and /n/, respectively. SEY has collapsed the second and third psyche plural pronominal forms thus, n n w can mean every you (pl.) came or they came in SEY dialects, whereas NWY for example has w you (pl.) came and wn w they came, respectively. The emergence of a plural of respect whitethorn have prevented coalescence of the dickens in NWY dialects.Central Yoruba forms a transitional area in that the lexicon has much in common with NWY, whereas it shares many ethnographical features with SEY. Its vowel system is the least innovating (most stable) of the one-third dialect grou ps, having retained nine oral-vowel contrasts and six or seven nasal vowels, and an extensive vowel harmony system. (Adetugb 1973) the bourne Yoruba is said to be precondition to Oyo Empire by the Hausas who originally called us yaribaBut as the Yoruba people changed from one political power to another, their identity became stronger. The Oyo themselves had adopted the designation Yoruba as a mode of self-reference by the early 19th century, a surgical process probably encouraged by the high status associations of Hausa regal culture and Islam. (Christopher) and with the existence of colonialism and World War II the Yoruba ethnic group grumose to become what it is today.Yoruba give up from what was a group of political entities with different dialect to uniform tribe with a language Yorubas call Yoruba adugbo. The 15 20 dialects which were employed a long time ago became one language. Despite the fact that I come from two royal families of two different independent states with different dialects, I can only talk the common Yoruba language even my parent have had hard generation trying to remember the individual dialects.As a Yoruba we have sealed Norms which most of us are accustomed to for example when must plane when greeting elders, we must respect elders in every path possible. in addition we are as well known to be people who are well educated and successful for example, M.K.O. Abiola, Obafemi Awolowo and Wole Soyinka. This specific qualities gives Yorubas certain privileges with which being able to converse the language comes to an advantage. turn I was still living in Nigeria, I discovered that people who could speak the Yoruba language were immediately considered as Yoruba and would bring forth any treatment that is due to a Yoruba. Even when I came to the linked States, I went for a college interview and when she my saw my last name she just smiled and started speaking Yoruba to an already nervous me and the interview was a success as I felt comfortable in my innate language. What I am trying to say is that when she saw my last name, her knowledge of the language assists her to identify me as soul of the same the tribe as herself and further more(prenominal) from my last name she was able to deduce what state I was from and communicate with me in an appropriate way. A similar case happened to me when I went to the margin last summer while walking I heard man speaking it was a man whom I didnt know from Adam but when he spoke Yoruba I could identify to be a Yoruba man and began to talk like we have known each other for a long time.Research has pointed to an interesting ethnic paradox in the specify together States. Despite many indications of weakening ethnic boundaries in the white American population (due to intermarriage, language loss, religious conversion or declining participation), a minute of studies have shown a maintenance or increase in ethnic credit among whitesThis contradictory dualism is par tly due to what Gans terms symbolic ethnicity, which is characterized by a nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigrant generation, or that of the old arena a love for and pride in a tradition that can be felt without having to be incorporated in everyday behavior (Joane). Bakalian provides the example of Armenian AmericansFor American-born generations, Armenian identity is a preference and being Armenian is a state of mind.One can say he or she is an Armenian without speaking Armenian, marrying an Armenian, doing business with Armenians, belonging to an Armenian church, joining Armenian voluntary associations, or participating in the events and activities sponsored by much(prenominal) organizations.(Joane )While ethnicity is commonly viewed as biological in the United States (with its history of an cussed ethnic boundary based on color), research has shown peoples conception of themselves along ethnic lines, especially their ethnic identity, to be situational and change- able. Barth (1969) first convincingly articulate the notion of ethnicity as mutable, arguing that ethnicity is the product of social ascriptions, a signifier of labeling process engaged in by oneself and others. (Joane)As one language changes the their notion of ethnicity change a s we further learn According to Joane Nagel that with this perspective in mind, ones ethnic identity is a composite of the view one has of oneself as well as the views held by others about ones ethnic identity. As the individual (or group) moves through daily carriage, ethnicity can change consort to variations in the situations and audiences encountered. Ethnic identity, then, is the result of a dialectical process involving national and outer opinions and processes, as well as the individuals self-identification and outsiders ethnic designations-i.e., what you study your ethnicity is, versus what they think your ethnicity is. Since ethnicity changes situationally, the individual carries a portfol io of ethnic identities that are more or less salient in various situations and with reference to various audiences.As audiences change, the socially-defined begin of ethnic choices opens to the individual changes. This produces a layering of ethnic identities which combines with the ascriptive character of ethnicity to reveal the negotiated, knobbed nature of ethnic identity. Ethnic Constructing Ethnicity 155 boundaries, and thus identities, are constructed by two(prenominal) the individual and group as well as by outside agents and organizations. Examples can be found in patterns of ethnic identification in many U.S. ethnic communities.For instance, Cornell (1988) and McBeth (1989) discuss various levels of identity lendable to Native Americans sub tribal (clan, lineage, traditional), tribal (ethnographic or linguistic, reservation-based, official), regional (Oklahoma, California, Alaska, Plains), supra- tribal or pan-Indian (Native American, Indian, American Indian). Which o f these identities a native individual employs in social interaction depends partly on where and with whom the interaction occurs. Thus, an American Indian index be a mixed-blood on the reservation, from Pine Ridge when speaking to someone from another reservation, a Sioux or Lakota when responding to the U.S. census, and Native American when interacting with non-Indians. Joane Nagel noted a similar layering of Latino or Hispanic ethnic identity, again reflecting both internal and external defining processes. An individual of Cuban ancestry may be a Latino in relation to non-Spanish-speaking ethnic groups, a Cuban-American with reference to other Spanish-speaking groups, a Marielito in relation to other Cubans, and white in relation to African Americans.The chosen ethnic identity is determined by the individuals perception of its meaning to different audiences, its salience in different social contexts, and its utility in different settings. For instance, intra- Cuban distinctions of level and immigration cohort may not be widely understood outside of the Cuban community since a Marielito is a Cuban or Hispanic to most Anglo-Americans. To a Cuban, however, immigration cohorts represent important political vintages, distinguishing those whose lives have been shaped by decades of Cuban revolutionary social changes from those whose life experiences have been as exiles in the United States. Others lack of appreciation for such ethnic differences tends to make certain ethnic identity choices useless and socially meaningless except in very specific situations. It underlines the importance of external validation of individual or group ethnic boundaries.An ethnic groups cultural identity involves a shared sense of the cultural features that help to define and to characterize the group. These group attributes are important not just for their practicable value, but also as symbols. For example, for many Puerto Ricans in the United States, the Spanish language is not just a means of communication it also represents their identification as Latinos and their difference from the majority culture. Even if Spanish interpret and writing ability is absent, the desire to conserve some degree of Spanish speaking ability may reflect a desire to concur distinctiveness from the surrounding gildTake me for example I didnt learn my native language until I was about eleven years old. I went to a very expansive school where everything around was position. Therefore, the only my society leaseed from me at that point in time was English. It was not until I went to live with my grand mom that I started to pick up my native language. My grandma lived in a more or less rude part of Nigeria were most people spoke Yoruba and as began to mingle with other kids I fortuitously began to pick up the language as the need for communication was apparent in other to be part of the community.At the individual level, cultural identity has to do with the persons sense of wh at constitutes membership in an ethnic group to which he or she belongs. Each person will have a particular image of the behaviors and values that characterize the groups culture. In my case Yorubas are known to be able insult people especially people from the Oyo empire they are popularly categorized with the term agboku dide meaning someone who can insult the dead to come bet on to live. While staying with my grandma I was not look at to be a foreigner and precaution was taken when I come to behave with other children. When I was in a fight I didnt get support because I did not belong, making my whole group win at insulting me. But as I started to learn the language I began to gain respect amongst my pairs and felt part of the community. People think twice before coming to insult me and the sense of belonging came to me.The term cultural identity is distinguished here from the related and broader social psychological concept of social identity, as well as from ethnic identity. Tajfel and turner (1986) define social identity as consisting of those aspects of an individuals self-image that derive from the social categories to which he perceives himself as belonging. Their notion of social categories is quite broad, encompassing any oddball of group to which people perceive themselves as belonging. Such categories of course involve ethnicity, but can range from school sports teams to professional identifications, from social friendship memberships to gender or race classifications, and from nationality groups to psychological groups (for example, jocks, yuppies, nerds). Social identity incorporates both the persons knowledge of membership in particular social categories and the value and feelings inclined to those memberships. Ethnic identity can be defined as the fragment of an individuals social identity that is associated with membership in an ethnic group (Joane).Cultural identity, while linked closely to both ethnic and social identity, is incomp lete equivalent to them nor coterminous. While both ethnic and cultural identity help the individual to answer the question, Who am I? cultural identity is the division that associates particular cultural features with group membership. Social identity and ethnic identity deal with the symbolic aspects of social categorization the boundary between the in-group and the out-group and the associated affect. A particular individual, for example, may base his/her social identity primarily on gender, while his /her younger siblings may focus more sharply on her Polish background. Thus, the former individuals ethnic identity as a Polish-American would be somewhat less strong than that of the latter individual (Joane).Using the example Joanne Nagel gave, an ethnic identity is only made possible by our language. As one can only know more of one culture by speaking its language. No wonder when ever scientist want to explore a certain ethnic group they start by first learning the ethnics g roup language. After that, the scientist and people from the ethnic group feel as one and as if they can relate without any barriers.In conclusion, I would like to attest to the fact that that our language marks our identity. the way one speaks directly refers to where one comes from, for example if one speaks French, the person is from either France or French speaking country but the way the person speaks French is always different and from this one is able to deduce if the person is an Ivorian, Senegalese, a French Canadian or proper French. The same is English we have the American English which differ for instance we have a southern way of speaking and the northern way of speaking. This systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meanings and the combination of methods to be understood by a community can differentiate us totally like I am always asked if English was my first language becaus e of my accent and no content how times I tell them that English is my first language, I cargo area hearing the same question.